Nissan Maxima Service and Repair Manual: Multiport fuel injection system

System Diagram

Nissan Maxima. System Diagram

System Description

INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNAL CHART

Nissan Maxima. INPUT/OUTPUT SIGNAL CHART

*1: This sensor is not used to control the engine system under normal conditions.
*2: This signal is sent to the ECM via the CAN communication line.
*3: ECM determines the start signal status by the signals of engine speed and battery voltage

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

The amount of fuel injected from the fuel injector is determined by the ECM. The ECM controls the length of time the valve remains open (injection pulse duration). The amount of fuel injected is a program value in the ECM memory. The program value is preset by engine operating conditions. These conditions are determined by input signals (for engine speed and intake air) from the crankshaft position sensor (POS), camshaft position sensor (PHASE) and the mass air flow sensor.

VARIOUS FUEL INJECTION INCREASE/DECREASE COMPENSATION

In addition, the amount of fuel injected is compensated to improve engine performance under various operating conditions as listed below.

<Fuel increase>

  • During warm-up
  • When starting the engine
  • During acceleration
  • Hot-engine operation
  • When selector lever is changed from N to D
  • High-load, high-speed operation

<Fuel decrease>

  • During deceleration
  • During high engine speed operation

MIXTURE RATIO FEEDBACK CONTROL (CLOSED LOOP CONTROL)

Nissan Maxima. MIXTURE RATIO FEEDBACK CONTROL (CLOSED LOOP CONTROL)

The mixture ratio feedback system provides the best air-fuel mixture ratio for driveability and emission control.

The three way catalyst (manifold) can better reduce CO, HC and NOx emissions. This system uses A/F sensor 1 in the exhaust manifold to monitor whether the engine operation is rich or lean. The ECM adjusts the injection pulse width according to the sensor voltage signal. For more information about A/F sensor 1, refer to EC-218, "Description". This maintains the mixture ratio within the range of stoichiometric (ideal air-fuel mixture).

This stage is referred to as the closed loop control condition.

Heated oxygen sensor 2 is located downstream of the three way catalyst (manifold). Even if the switching characteristics of A/F sensor 1 shift, the air-fuel ratio is controlled to stoichiometric by the signal from heated oxygen sensor 2.

  • Open Loop Control

The open loop system condition refers to when the ECM detects any of the following conditions. Feedback control stops in order to maintain stabilized fuel combustion.

  • Deceleration and acceleration
  • High-load, high-speed operation
  • Malfunction of A/F sensor 1 or its circuit
  • Insufficient activation of A/F sensor 1 at low engine coolant temperature
  • High engine coolant temperature
  • During warm-up
  • After shifting from N to D
  • When starting the engine

MIXTURE RATIO SELF-LEARNING CONTROL

The mixture ratio feedback control system monitors the mixture ratio signal transmitted from A/F sensor 1.

This feedback signal is then sent to the ECM. The ECM controls the basic mixture ratio as close to the theoretical mixture ratio as possible. However, the basic mixture ratio is not necessarily controlled as originally designed. Both manufacturing differences (i.e., mass air flow sensor hot wire) and characteristic changes during operation (i.e., fuel injector clogging) directly affect mixture ratio.

Accordingly, the difference between the basic and theoretical mixture ratios is monitored in this system. This is then computed in terms of "injection pulse duration" to automatically compensate for the difference between the two ratios.

"Fuel trim" refers to the feedback compensation value compared against the basic injection duration. Fuel trim includes short-term fuel trim and long-term fuel trim.

"Short-term fuel trim" is the short-term fuel compensation used to maintain the mixture ratio at its theoretical value. The signal from A/F sensor 1 indicates whether the mixture ratio is RICH or LEAN compared to the theoretical value. The signal then triggers a reduction in fuel volume if the mixture ratio is rich, and an increase in fuel volume if it is lean.

"Long-term fuel trim" is overall fuel compensation carried out over time to compensate for continual deviation of the short-term fuel trim from the central value. Continual deviation will occur due to individual engine differences, wear over time and changes in the usage environment.

FUEL INJECTION TIMING

Nissan Maxima. FUEL INJECTION TIMING

Two types of systems are used.

  • Sequential Multiport Fuel Injection System
    Fuel is injected into each cylinder during each engine cycle according to the firing order. This system is used when the engine is running.
  • Simultaneous Multiport Fuel Injection System
    Fuel is injected simultaneously into all six cylinders twice each engine cycle. In other words, pulse signals of the same width are simultaneously transmitted from the ECM.

    The six injectors will then receive the signals 2 times for each engine cycle.

    This system is used when the engine is being started and/or if the fail-safe system (CPU) is operating.

FUEL SHUT-OFF

Fuel to each cylinder is cut off during deceleration, operation of the engine at excessively high speeds or operation of the vehicle at excessively high speeds

Component Parts Location

Nissan Maxima. Component Parts Location

  1. Intake valve timing control solenoid valve (bank 1)
  2. Electronic controlled engine mount control solenoid valve
  3. Exhaust valve timing control magnet retarder (bank 2)
  4. Intake valve timing control solenoid valve (bank 2)
  5. Knock sensor (bank 1 and 2)
  6. Fuel injector (bank 2)
  7. Ignition coil (with power transistor) and spark plug (bank 2)
  8. Exhaust valve timing control position sensor (bank 2)
  9. Crankshaft position sensor (POS)
  10. Engine coolant temperature sensor
  11. Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) (bank 2)
  12. Transmission range switch
  13. Refrigerant pressure sensor
  14. ECM
  15. Battery current sensor
  16. Condenser-2
  17. EVAP canister purge volume control solenoid valve
  18. Mass air flow sensor (with intake air temperature sensor)
  19. Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) (bank 1)
  20. EVAP service port 
  21. Power valve actuator
  22. Electric throttle control actuator
  23. Exhaust valve timing control position sensor (bank 1)
  24. Ignition coil (with power transistor) and spark plug (bank 1)
  25. Fuel injector (bank 1)
  26. VIAS control solenoid valve 1 and 2
  27. Power valve actuator 1
  28. Exhaust valve timing control magnet retarder (bank 1)
  29. Power steering pressure sensor

Nissan Maxima. Component Parts Location

  1. Mas air flow sensor (with intake air temperature sensor)
  2. Air cleaner case
  3. Engine coolant temperature sensor (view with engine cover removed)
  4. EVAP canister purge volume control solenoid valve (view with engine cover removed)
  5. Power valve actuator 1 (view with engine cover removed)
  6. VIAS control solenoid valve 1
  7. VIAS control solenoid valve 2
  8. Power valve actuator 2
  9. Power steering pressure sensor
  10. Tie rod (RH)
  11. Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) (bank 1) (view with air cleaner case removed)
  12. Exhaust valve timing control position sensor (bank 1)
  13. Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) (bank 2) (view with air cleaner case removed)
  14. Exhaust valve timing control position sensor (bank 2)
  15. Engine oil temperature sensor
    : Vehicle front

Nissan Maxima. Component Parts Location

  1. A/F sensor 1 (bank 1) (view with engine removed)
  2. A/F sensor 1 (bank 2)
  3. HO2S2 (bank 1) harness connector (view with engine removed)
  4. HO2S2 (bank 2) harness connector
  5. Front engine mount
  6. Crankshaft position sensor (POS)
    : Vehicle front

Nissan Maxima. Component Parts Location

  1. Electronic controlled engine mount control solenoid valve (view with engine cover removed)
  2. EVAP control system pressure sensor (view with rear suspension member removed)
  3. EVAP canister vent control valve
  4. EVAP canister
  5. Fuel injector harness connector (view with intake manifold collector removed)
  6. Exhaust valve timing control magnet retarder (bank 1) (view with engine removed)
  7. Intake valve timing control solenoid valve (bank 1)
  8. Intake valve timing control solenoid valve (bank 2)
  9. Exhaust valve timing control magnet retarder (bank 2)
    : Vehicle front

Nissan Maxima. Component Parts Location

  1. Knock sensor (bank 2) (view with intake manifold removed)
  2. Knock sensor (bank 1)
  3. Transmission range switch (view with CVT removed)
  4. Battery
  5. IPDM E/R
  6. ECM
  7. Refrigerant pressure sensor (view with front grille removed)
  8. Accelerator pedal position sensor
    : Vehicle front

Nissan Maxima. Component Parts Location

  1. Stop lamp switch
  2. ASCD brake switch
  3. ASCD steering switch

Component Description

Component Reference

  • A/F sensor 1 EC-218, "Description"
  • Accelerator pedal position sensor EC-467, "Description"
  • Camshaft position sensor (PHASE) EC-300, "Description"
  • Crankshaft position sensor (POS) EC-296, "Description"
  • Engine coolant temperature sensor EC-201, "Description"
  • Fuel injector EC-496, "Description"
  • Heated oxygen sensor 2 EC-230, "Description"
  • Intake air temperature sensor EC-198, "Description"
  • Knock sensor EC-293, "Description"
  • Mass air flow sensor EC-183, "Description"
  • TCM EC-397, "Description"
  • Power steering pressure sensor EC-386, "Description"
  • Throttle position sensor
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